Workforce Metrics
Calculating and tracking workforce metrics is a valuable way to assess workforce needs and examine workforcerelated processes, interventions, and outcomes. This resource includes over 90 metrics related to recruitment and selection, education, work hours, work arrangements, caseload capacity, supervision, career development, performance, turnover and tenure, and costs. Note that these metrics are not universal, and many other variations exist elsewhere. These have been selected or developed based on their applicability to the child welfare workforce.
Recruitment and Selection
Quantity Metrics
Average number of applicants per opening  Total number of applicants across openings divided by the number of openings 
Candidate dropout rate (per stage of hiring process)  For each stage of the hiring process, total number of candidate that choose to drop out of the hiring process divided by the number of candidates in the hiring process, multiplied by 100 
Yield ratio (per stage of hiring process)  For each stage of the hiring process, total number of candidates that pass the stage divided by the total number of candidates who entered the stage, multiplied by 100 
Selection ratio  Total number of candidates hired divided by the total number of candidates 
Source of application  Total number of applicants recruited through a certain source^{1} divided by the total number of applicants, multiplied by 100 
Source of hire  Total number of hires recruited through a certain source divided by the total number of hires, multiplied by 100 
Internal hire rate  Total number of internal hires in a period divided by the average headcount for the period, multiplied by 100 
External hire rate  Total number of external hires in a period divided by the average headcount for the period, multiplied by 100 
Rehire rate  Total number of rehires in a period divided by the average headcount for the period, multiplied by 100 
Time Metrics
Time in process (per stage of hiring process)  For each stage of the hiring process, total number of days for a candidate to complete each stage of hiring process 
Average time in process (per stage of hiring process)  Total time in process across candidates divided by the number of candidates in process 
Time to accept  Total number of days between when a job was opened and an offer is accepted 
Average time to accept  Total time to accept across candidates divided by the number of offers accepted, multiplied by 100 
Time to fill  Total number of days between when a job was opened and candidate passes all postoffer hurdles such as a background check 
Average time to fill  Total time to fill across job openings divided by the number of openings filled, multiplied by 100 
Time to start  Total number of days between when a job was opened and the new hire starts working 
Average time to start  Total time to start across candidates divided by the number of candidates hired, multiplied by 100 
Quality Metrics
Candidate net promoter score 
Percent of promoters minus percent of detractors, as measured below: What is the likelihood that you would recommend this hiring experience to someone else? (1 to 10) 910 = Promoters, 78 = Passive, 06 = Detractors 
Candidate satisfaction with overall and/or specific aspects of the hiring process 

Quality of hire  Total number of hires meeting a certain standard divided by the total number of hires, multiplied by 100 
Education
Education at hire  Total number of employees who had a certain level/type of degree at hire divided by the total number of employees hired, multiplied by 100 (could focus only on current employees or include leavers (for a certain time period), to get a more comprehensive view) 
Current education  Total number of employees who have a certain level/type of degree divided by the total number of employees, multiplied by 100 
Educational advancement  Total number of employees who obtained a higher degree while employed divided by the total number of employees, multiplied by 100 (could focus only on current employees or include leavers (for a certain time period), to get a more comprehensive view) 
Work Hours
Parttime employment rate  Total number of employees that are part time divided by the average headcount, multiplied by 100 
Fulltime employment rate  Total number of employees that are full time divided by the average headcount, multiplied by 100 
Absenteeism rate  Total number of days missed across all employees divided by (total number of available workdays x average headcount), multiplied by 100 
Average absence  Total number of days missed across all employees divided by the average headcount 
Overtime rate  Total number of overtime hours worked across employees divided by the total number of regular hours worked across employees 
Average overtime  Total number of overtime hours worked across employees divided by the average headcount 
Overtime frequency  Total number of employees who worked overtime divided by the average headcount 
Work Arrangement
Flexible schedule rate  Total number of employees that participate in a flexible schedule (or a specific type of flex schedule) divided by the average headcount, multiplied by 100 
Telework rate  Total number of employees that telework divided by the average headcount, multiplied by 100 
Caseload Capacity
Caseload capacity (only applicable to graduated caseload assignment systems) 
Total number of employees who are at each level of caseload capacity divided by the average job headcount, multiplied by 100 
Average time to caseload capacity (only applicable to graduated caseload assignment systems where advancement timing is discretionary)  Total number of days to advance from a minimum to “full” caseload (however defined by agency) across employees divided by the number of employees 
Supervision
Supervisor churn percent  Total number of current employees who have had more than one supervisor in the last year divided by the current headcount 
Supervisortoworker ratio  Supervisor headcount divided by supervisee headcount 
Career Development
Average training hours per employee  Total number of training hours across all employees divided by the total number of employees 
Promotion rate  Total number of promotions^{2} across all employees divided by the total headcount, multiplied by 100 
Average time to promotion  Total time in position before promotion divided by the total number of promotion 
Transfer rate  Total number of transfers^{3} across all employees divided by the total headcount, multiplied by 100 
Demotion rate  Total number of demotions^{4} across all employees divided by the total headcount, multiplied by 100 
Career path ratio  Total number of promotions divided by the total number of employees who moved to a new job within the agency 
Performance
Training Performance Metrics
Knowledge test scores (individual)  Knowledge or understanding of content trained, such as

Skills evaluation scores (individual)  Demonstration or application of skills trained, such as

Field observations (individual)  Observations of trainee performance by a trainer, mentor, or supervisor, such as

Assignment completion (individual) 
Number or percent of completed or missing assignments Number or percent of ontime or late assignments 
Attendance (individual) 
Number or percent of training courses/units attended or missed Number of percent of training courses/units for which trainee was tardy or left early 
Professional Conduct (individual)  Intraining observations about trainees’ professional conduct, such as

Training completion rate (aggregate)  The number of employees who completed a given training or training program divided by the total number of employees who were expected to participate, multiplied by 100 
Job Performance Metrics
Subjective Ratings  
Overall job performance (individual)  How well each employee is performing across all job expectations 
Relative overall job performance (individual)  How each employee compares to other employees (with similar tenure) supervised now or in the past, across all job expectations 
Performance of job duties (individual)  How well each employee is performing on each job duty, such as:

Demonstration of competencies or essential behaviors (individual)  How frequently each employee demonstrates desirable competencies or behaviors, such as:

Demonstration of organizational citizenship behaviors (individual)  How frequently each employee engages in discretionary, extrarole behaviors, such as:

Rehire (individual)  If the supervisor had the opportunity to consider this person for hire again, how likely it is that they would hire the person again 
Recommend to others (individual)  If the supervisor were asked to make a recommendation for this person to do this job for another supervisor, what they would recommend 
Discipline (individual) 
Total number of disciplinary actions Total number of disciplinary actions of a given type (e.g., verbal warning, written warning) 
Average performance (aggregate)  Total performance ratings across all employees divided by the total number of employees 
Percent of high performers (aggregate)  Total number of highperforming employees divided by the total number of employees, multiplied by 100 
Percent of low performers (aggregate) 
Total number of lowperforming employees divided by the total number of employees, multiplied by 100 
Average number of disciplinary actions (aggregate) 
Total number of disciplinary actions across employees divided by the total number of employees 
Average number of disciplinary actions of a given type (e.g., verbal warning, written warning)  Total number of disciplinary actions of a given type (e.g., verbal warning, written warning) across employees divided by the total number of employees 
Percent of employees with disciplinary actions 
Total number of employees with disciplinary actions divided by the total number of employees, multiplied by 100 
Percent of employees with disciplinary actions of a given type 
Total number of employees with disciplinary actions of a given type divided by the total number of employees, multiplied by 100 
Objective Measures 
Numerous measures can be calculated from data in an agency’s child welfare information system. Standard measures include those calculated and reported for the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) and the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS). There are also many other types of data that could be used to assess individual performance. Information is typically organized by program area and job function. Within each area, there are indicators of various aspects of performance, such as quantity, quality, and timeliness. Metrics should be selected that have the most relevance to the purpose for which they are being examined. 
Turnover and Tenure
Headcount Metrics
Headcount  Total number of employees on a given date 
Average headcount  Total number of employees at the beginning of a time period plus the total number of employees at the end of the time period, divided by two 
Average daily headcount  Total number of employees across every day in a period divided by the number of days in the period 
Turnover
Overall agency turnover rate  Total number of employees who left the agency divided by the average employee headcount, multiplied by 100 (both counts should be from the same time period) 
Overall job turnover rate  Total number of employees who left a given job divided by the average employee headcount for the job, multiplied by 100 (both counts should be from the same time period) 
Internal agency turnover rate  Total number of employees who left a job and stayed in the agency divided by the average employee headcount, multiplied by 100 (both counts should be from the same time period) 
Internal job turnover rate  Total number of employees who left a given job and stayed in the agency divided by the average employee headcount for the job, multiplied by 100 (both counts should be from the same time period) 
External agency turnover rate  Same as overall agency turnover rate 
Voluntary turnover rate  Total number of employees who voluntarily left the agency divided by the average employee headcount, multiplied by 100 (both counts should be from the same time period) 
Involuntary turnover rate  Total number of employees who involuntarily left the agency divided by the average employee headcount, multiplied by 100 (both counts should be from the same time period) 
Functional turnover rate  Total number of poor performers who left the agency divided by the average employee headcount, multiplied by 100 (both counts should be from the same time period) 
Dysfunctional turnover rate  Total number of good performers who left the agency divided by the average employee headcount, multiplied by 100 (both counts should be from the same time period) 
New employee turnover rate  Total number of new employees who left the agency divided by the average employee headcount, multiplied by 100 (both counts should be from the same time period) 
Annualized turnover rate (using data from < 1 year)  Divide 12 by the number of months of data you currently have (12 months/ # of months of data) Multiply the number above by the turnover rate (for the period of <1 year) 
Tenure Metrics
Average agency tenure of stayers  Total number of days employed in the agency across all current employees divided by the current agency headcount 
Average agency tenure of leavers  Total number of days employed in the agency across former employees divided by the number of employees formerly in the agency (both counts should be from the same time period) 
Average agency tenure  Total number of days employed in the agency across former and current employees divided by the number of former and current employees (need to select a time period for former employees) 
Average job tenure of stayers  Total number of days employed in a given job across all current employees in the job divided by the current job headcount 
Average job tenure of leavers  Total number of days employed in a given job across former employees divided by the number of employees formerly in the job (both counts should be from the same time period) 
Average job tenure  Total number of days employed in a given job across former and current employees divided by the number of former and current employees (need to select a time period for former employees) 
Percent < 6 months tenure  Total number of employees with < 6 months of tenure divided by the total number of employees, multiplied by 100 
Percent < 1 year tenure  Total number of employees with < 1 year of tenure divided by the total number of employees, multiplied by 100 
Costs
Cost per hire  Total costs of recruiting divided by the total number of hires (topdown metric) 
Recruitment source cost  Total costs of a recruitment source divided by the total number of hires from that recruitment source (top down metric) 
Cost per trainee  Total costs of training divided by the total number of training participants (topdown metric) 
Cost per turnover  For a detailed bottomup approach to calculating, see Graef, M. I., & Hill, E. (2000) 
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^{1 }Recruitment source refers to how the applicant learned about the opportunity, which may not be the same as the channel
through which they applied (e.g., may have heard about it from a friend but applied via website)
^{2 }Any upward movement, wherein an employee moves to a job that is at a higher level than their current job
^{3 }Any lateral movement, wherein an employee moves to a job that is at the same level as their current job
^{4 }Any downward movement, wherein an employee moves to a job that is at a lower level than their current job
For more information on this topic, read our blog post.